Asmat Tribes

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Asmat is probably the most well known tribe in Papua (formerly called Irian Jaya). They become famous not only through their head-hunting practices in the past, but also because of their unique ideas and wonderful designs in woodcarving which is considered one among the world's finest.

To the Asmat, woodcarving was inextricably connected with the spirit world, and therefore, the carving cannot just be principally considered aesthetic objects. Much of the highly original art of the Asmat is symbolic of warfare, headhunting, and warrior-ancestor veneration.

For centuries the Asmat were preoccupied with the necessity of appeasing ancestor spirits, producing a wealth of superbly designed shields, canoes, sculptured figures, and drums.

The name Asmat most probably comes from the Asmat words As Akat, which according to Asmat people means "the right man". Moreover, it's also said that Asmat comes from the word Osamat that means "man from tree". The Asmat's neighbors to the west, the Mimika, however, claim the name is derived from their word for the tribe- "manue", meaning "man eater".

Natives of the region are divided into two main groups; those living along the coasts, and those in the interior. They differ in dialect, way of life, social structure, and ceremonies. The coastal rivers are further divided into two groups, the Bisman people between the Sinesty and Nin Rivers, and the Simai people.

Around 70,000 Asmat, the area's largest tribe, are scattered in 100 villages in a territory of roughly 27,000 square km live in a huge tidal swamp land. The tribe was untouched by civilization until recent times. Dutch outpost, missionary settlements, and foreign expeditions finally made in road on this isolated culture during the 1950 and 60's.

Formerly, the families of the entire tribe resided together in houses up to 28 meters long called yeus. Yeus still used, but not only by men, as clubhouse where bachelors sleep. Upriver Asmat still live in longhouses, some even construct houses in treetops.

The Asmat live on sago, their staple, as well as mussels, snails, and fat insect larvae collected from decaying stumps of sago palms. These last are eaten to the accompaniment of throbbing drums and ritual dances; larvae feast can sometimes last up to two weeks. The Asmat also gather forest products such as rattan, catch fish and shrimp in large hoop nets.

 THE LAND
Almost the entire Asmat region is covered in water during the rainy season, when high tide reaches up to two km inland and low tide flows up to two km out to sea. This is the largest alluvial swamp in the world, a low-lying stone less territory of bog forest and meandering rivers emptying into the Arafura sea.

 FLORA & FAUNA
In the rivers swarm with shrimp, fish, lobster, crab, fresh water dolphin, sea snake and crocodiles. Living along the banks are lizards, that grow longer than the Komodo dragon. The forests contain palms, ironwood, merak wood, and mangroves, and are home for crown pigeons, hornbills, and cockatoos. There are grass meadows, and flowers like the Dedrobium orchid.

 CLIMATE
The climate is hot and humid. The rainy season stretches from October to May, with an average of 40 cm of precipitation each year. The east monsoon season runs from April April to June, west monsoons strike December to March.

 ASMAT ART
Asmat woodcarving is considered one among the world's finest. To the Asmat, woodcarving was inextricably connected with the spirit world, and therefore, the carving can not just be principally considered aesthetic objects. Much of the highly original art of the Asmat is symbolic of warfare, headhunting, and warrior-ancestor veneration. For centuries the Asmat were preoccupied with the necessity of appeasing ancestor spirits, producing a wealth of superbly designed shields, canoes, sculptured figures, and drums.

Particularly to call the still common stone axe, bone knifes as well as the grave stick to remove the hard skin from a Sago Tree and the wooden Sago hammer. For the decoration of the body we have to name the bones from the wings of a flying fox. The Korowai women place this in the nose. Also the necklace from dog´s tooth are really important for them. The mother give these necklaces to the daughter and this is still in use. The men use necklaces from pig´s tooth. The women use only a small skirt made from tree skin and Sago fibres. The men use only a leaf around the penis. Some groups have just the half of a nut around the penis. Around the chest you can see also some rotanings. Without their net the women never move out of the tree house. The men never move out without bow and arrows.

 

 

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